[52][57], View of the second and third storeys of the minaret, Close view of one of the Roman stones (with Latin inscriptions) reused at the base of the minaret, Wall and windows of the south facade of the minaret, The Mosque has several domes, the largest being over the mihrab and the entrance to the prayer hall from the courtyard. It was under his auspices that the construction of the minaret began. [13] Despite the austere façades, the rhythmic patterns of buttresses and towering porches, some surmounted by cupolas, give the sanctuary a sense of striking sober grandeur. La Grande mosquée de Kairouan prônait un islam tolérant, très imprégné de la doctrine malékite. These polycandelons, now scattered in various Tunisian museums including Raqqada, consist of three chains supporting a perforated brass plate, which has a central circular ring around which radiate 18 equidistant poles connected by many horseshoe arches and equipped for each of two landmarks flared. The latter, which its hemispherical cap is cut by 24 concave grooves radiating around the top,[75] is based on ridged horns shaped shell and a drum pierced by eight circular windows which are inserted between sixteen niches grouped by two. At the end of the nineteenth century, the French writer Guy de Maupassant expresses in his book La vie errante (The Wandering Life), his fascination with the majestic architecture of the Great Mosque of Kairouan as well as the effect created by countless columns: "The unique harmony of this temple consists in the proportion and the number of these slender shafts upholding the building, filling, peopling, and making it what it is, create its grace and greatness. [60], View of the gallery which precedes the prayer hall, One of the seventeen carved-wood doors of the prayer hall, Close view of the upper part of the main door of the prayer hall, View of the central nave of the prayer hall, View of two of the secondary naves of the prayer hall, View of the mihrab located in the middle of the qibla wall of the prayer hall, In the prayer hall, the 414 columns of marble, granite or porphyry[69] (among more than 500 columns in the whole mosque),[70] taken from ancient sites in the country such as Sbeitla, Carthage, Hadrumetum and Chemtou,[60] support the horseshoe arches. Révisez en Cinquième : Exercice fondamental Compléter le schéma d'une mosquée avec Kartable ️ Programmes officiels de l'Éducation nationale Other works of art such as the crowns of light (circular chandeliers) made in cast bronze, dating from the Fatimid-Zirid period (around the tenth to the early eleventh century), originally belonged to the furniture of the mosque. Lucien Golvin, « Quelques réflexions sur la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan à la période des Aghlabides Â». The horseshoe arch of the mihrab, stilted and broken at the top, rest on two columns of red marble with yellow veins, which surmounted with Byzantine style capitals that carry two crossbeams carved with floral patterns, each one is decorated with a Kufic inscription in relief. [17] During this expansion, he pulled down the mosque and rebuilt it with the exception of the mihrab. La Mosquée de Barb[er,] Kairouan Summary Courtyard of the Mosque of the Barber, Qayrawān, Tunisia. [55], Due to its age and its architectural features, the minaret of the Great Mosque of Kairouan is the prototype for all the minarets of the western Islamic world: it served as a model in both North Africa and in Andalusia. Fig. ! [8] Its role at the time can be compared to that of the University of Paris in the Middle Ages. ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿì¥Á M ø¿ § bjbjâ=â= ß] €W €W œ Le plancher de la mosquée, à l’endroit où la … Voici un fichier Word qui présente, à l’aide de plusieurs photographies, la grande mosquée de Kairouan. [12], During the thirteenth century, new gates were opened, the most remarkable, Bab Lalla Rihana dated from 1293, is located on the eastern wall of the enclosure. Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Contacts Search for a Library. One may conceivably compare its role to that of the University of Paris during the Middle Ages. Oxford, 1977, Présentation a) La mosquée Nom : mosquée de Kairouan ou mosquée Oqba Ibn Nafi en souvenir de son fondateur. ÿÿ ÿÿ ÿÿ l b b b b 2 æ$ æ$ æ$ æ$ 4 % | 2 V ¼ ¢% ´&. [40][41] It is surrounded on all its four sides by a portico with double rows of arches, opened by slightly horseshoe arches supported by columns in various marbles, in granite or in porphyry, reused from Roman, Early Christian or Byzantine monuments particularly from Carthage. En nous approchant davantage, un homme qui passe par là… nous propose de nous guider jusqu’à la mosquée. [58] From the outside, the dome of the mihrab is based on an octagonal drum with slightly concave sides, raised on a square base, decorated on each of its three southern, Easter and western faces with five flat-bottomed niches surmounted by five semi-circular arches,[24][58] the niche in the middle is cut by a lobed oculus enrolled in a circular frame. page 404, Henri Saladin, Tunis et Kairouan, ÐÏࡱá > þÿ þÿÿÿ [56] Despite its massive form and austere decoration, it nevertheless presents a harmonious structure and a majestic appearance. Dated from the ninth century (about 862) and erected under the reign of the sixth Aghlabid ruler Abul Ibrahim (856–863), it is made in teak wood imported from India. Je laisse Lamaâ gérer ça pendant que je commence à filmer ! La mosquée est le lieu de culte des musulmans.L'appel du muezzin invite les fidèles à venir y prier cinq fois par jour.La prière collective se déroule sous la direction d'un religieux lettré, l' imam, choisi pour son niveau de connaissances religieuses, Le terme signifie « celui qui est devant, celui qui montre la voie ». [85], The library is near located, accessible by a door which the jambs and the lintel are carved in marble, adorned with a frieze of floral decoration. The boards painted under the Hafsid period (during the thirteenth century) offers a floral decor consists of white and blue arches entwined with lobed green. TunisiaTourismTV – La Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, la première du Maghreb, a été fondée en 670 et reconstruite en 836. The three chains, connected by a suspension ring, are each fixed to the plate by an almond-shaped finial. [83] Probably made by cabinetmakers of Kairouan (some researchers also refer to Baghdad), it consists of an assembly of more than 300 finely carved wood pieces with an exceptional ornamental wealth (vegetal and geometric patterns refer to the Umayyad and Abbasid models), among which about 90 rectangular panels carved with plenty of pine cones, grape leaves, thin and flexible stems, lanceolate fruits and various geometric shapes (squares, diamonds, stars, etc.). »[32], At the same time, the doctor and Anglican priest Thomas Shaw (1692–1751),[33] touring the Tunis Regency and passes through Kairouan in 1727, described the mosque as that: "which is considered the most beautiful and the most sacred of Berberian territories", evoking for example: "an almost unbelievable number of granite columns".[34]. The upper edge of the minbar ramp is adorned with a rich and graceful vegetal decoration composed of alternately arranged foliated scrolls, each one containing a spread vine-leaf and a cluster of grapes. [66] This sumptuous door, which has four leaves richly carved with geometric motifs embossed on the bottom of foliages and interlacing stars, is decorated at the typanum by a stylised vase from which emerge winding stems and leaves. page 118, Mahmud Abd al-Mawla, WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. [20], Under the rule of the Aghlabid dynasty, Kairouan was at its apogee, and the mosque profited from this period of stability and prosperity. The transmission of knowledge was assured by prominent scholars and theologians which included Sahnun ibn Sa'id and Asad ibn al-Furat, eminent jurists who contributed greatly to the dissemination of the Maliki thought, Ishaq ibn Imran and Ibn al-Jazzar in medicine, Abu Sahl al-Kairouani and Abd al-Monim al-Kindi in mathematics. [58][76] The niches are covered with carved stone panels, finely adorned with characteristic geometric, vegetal and floral patterns of the Aghlabid decorative repertoire: shells, cusped arches, rosettes, vine-leaf, etc. Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, vantail de la grande porte de la salle de prière.jpg 1,067 × 1,600; 2.75 MB Grande Mosquée Kairouan 3.jpg 3,086 × 4,115; 9.45 MB Great Mosque Kairouan Columns Prayer Hall.jpg 2,572 × 1,710; 624 KB Comme nous nous y attendions, notre « guide » veut nous faire entrer dans une boutique. Jewel of the art of woodwork produced during the reign of the Zirid prince Al-Mu'izz ibn Badis and dated from the first half of the eleventh century, it is considered the oldest still in place in the Islamic world. J-C.), la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan (al-Jama’ al-kabîr) est le plus ancien lieu de culte de l’Occident musulman. Ce fichier se présente sous la forme d’un jeu de piste : après avoir trouvé la définition du mot mosquée, et situé la ville de Kairouan, (à l’aide du manuel Hatier) les élèves commencent leur visite en passant la porte. Around 690, shortly after its construction, the mosque was destroyed[15] during the occupation of Kairouan by the Berbers, originally conducted by Kusaila. Other scrolls and calligraphic Qur'ans, as that known as the Hadinah's Qur'an, copied and illuminated by the calligrapher Ali ibn Ahmad al-Warraq for the governess of the Zirid prince Al-Muizz ibn Badis at about 1020 AD, were also in the library before being transferred to Raqqada museum. The combination formed by the courtyard and the galleries that surround it covers an immense area whose dimensions are about 90 metres long and 72 metres in width. Au milieu du xixe siècle, la ville de Kairouan (Madînat al-Qayrawân) était formée de six quartiers dont la moitié était située intra-muros. Mahmoud Bouali, « Il y a près de trois siècles, un tourisme éminemment éclairé Â», Courte biographie sur Thomas Shaw (Société des anglicistes de l’enseignement supérieur), Kairouan n’était pas une ville interdite (Capitale de la culture islamique 2009), The influence of Kairouan on art and literature (Capital of Islamic culture 2009), Fragment de bois à décor d’arcatures d’époque hafside (Qantara), Coupole du Bahou de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Cour et minaret de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Minaret de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan (Qantara). Considered as the oldest example of concave mihrab, it dates in its present state to 862–863 AD.[79]. Structurally given the soft grounds subject to compaction, the buttressed towers added stability to the entire mosque. Covered with a thick coating completely painted, the concavity of the arch is decorated with intertwined scrolls enveloping stylised five-lobed vine leaves, three-lobed florets and sharp clusters, all in yellow on midnight blue background.[81]. Mais ils furent contraints de céder et Kairouan devint capitale. He then made the mihrab. [72] The shafts of the columns are carved in marble of different colors and different backgrounds. The oldest boards date back to the Aghlabid period (ninth century) and are decorated with scrolls and rosettes on a red background consists of squares with concave sides in which are inscribed four-petaled flowers in green and blue, and those performed by the Zirid dynasty (eleventh century) are characterised by inscriptions in black kufic writing with gold rim and the uprights of the letters end with lobed florets, all on a brown background adorned with simple floral patterns. The library window is marked by an elegant setting that has two columns flanking the opening, which is a horseshoe arch topped by six blind arches and crowned by a series of berms sawtooth.[86]. Carefully executed in relief, it represents one of the most beautiful epigraphic bands of Islamic art. Grande Mosquée de Kairouan - J-A Brutails - Université Bordeaux Montaigne - 1692.jpg 3,140 × 4,509; 1.05 MB Kairouan Minaret (39733812671).jpg 1,024 × 768; 159 KB Vue aérienne de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan - aerial view of Kairouan's Great Mosque.jpg 1,700 × 949; 1.2 MB " Coupole et plafonds de la grande mosquée de Kairouan " " Coupole et Plafonos de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan " " Coupole et plafonds de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan " Among the finest works of this series, the pages of the Blue Qur'an, currently exhibited at Raqqada National Museum of Islamic Art, from a famous Qur'an in the second half of the fourth century of the Hegira (the tenth century) most of which is preserved in Tunisia and the rest scattered in museums and private collections worldwide. The niche of the mihrab is two metres long, 4.5 metres high and 1.6 metres deep. This valuable collection, observed from the late nineteenth century by the French orientalists Octave Houdas and René Basset who mention in their report on their scientific mission in Tunisia published in the Journal of African correspondence in 1882, comprises according to the inventory established at the time of the Hafsids (circa 1293–1294) several Qur'ans and books of fiqh that concern mainly the Maliki fiqh and its sources. [49] The first and second stories are surmounted by rounded merlons which are pierced by arrowslits. [39] Despite its construction at the end of the thirteenth century, Bab Lalla Rihana blends well with all of the building mainly dating from the ninth century. Extensive works under the Aghlabids two centuries later (9th Cent.AD/CE) gave the mosque its present aspect. [45] The northern part of the courtyard is paved with flagstones while the rest of the floor is almost entirely composed of white marble slabs. Linda Kay Davidson and David Martin Gitlitz, Minaret of the Great Mosque of Kairouan (Qantara), Minaret de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Coupole du mihrab de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Salle de prière de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Présentation de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan (Qantara). Centre italien d’études du haut Moyen Âge, Lucien Golvin, « Le mihrab de Kairouan Â», Kunst des Orients, vol. [80] Above the marble cladding, the mihrab niche is crowned with a half dome-shaped vault made of manchineel bentwood. Fondée en même temps que la ville de Kairouan par les conquérants (ghuzât) musulmans, en l’an 50 de l’Hégire (670 ap. The crowns of light are marked by Byzantine influence to which the Kairouanese artisan brought the specificities of Islamic decorative repertoire (geometric and floral motifs). Les mosquées ne sont pas décorées de statues ni de peintures représentant des personnages. Among the Western travelers, poets and writers who visited Kairouan, some of them leave impressions and testimonies sometimes tinged with emotion or admiration on the mosque. 1. From the outside, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is a fortress-like building with its 1.90 metres thick massive ocher walls, a composite of well-worked stones with intervening courses of rubble stone and baked bricks. [50] There are stone blocks from the Roman period that bear Latin inscriptions. [88], At the time of its greatest splendor, between the ninth and eleventh centuries AD, Kairouan was one of the greatest centres of Islamic civilisation and its reputation as a hotbed of scholarship covered the entire Maghreb. The portico on the south side of the courtyard, near the prayer hall, includes in its middle a large dressed stone pointed horseshoe arch which rests on ancient columns of white veined marble with Corinthian capitals. Activités éducatives (Carte Interactive): schéma d'une mosquée (histoire - cinquieme - islam) - Le schéma d'une mosquée pour repérer les différentes parties caractéristiques de l'architecture de ce lieu de culte musulman. [24] Around 862–863, Emir Abu Ibrahim enlarged the oratory, with three bays to the north, and added the cupola over the arched portico which precedes the prayer hall. However given the natural lay of the land crossed by several tributaries of the wadis, the urban development of the city spread southwards. In the history of Art, its three-storey minaret is considered such a masterpiece and a model among the most prestigious monuments of Muslim architecture. La présence d’une importante communauté juive à Kairouan confirme cette tolérance, et le statut de Kairouan. This porch of seven metres high is topped with a square base upon which rests a semi-spherical ribbed dome; the latter is ribbed with sharp-edged ribs. Contributor: Soler, F. Date: 1880 [44], View of the courtyard on the side of the prayer hall facade, Porch topped with a ribbed dome rising in the middle of the south portico of the courtyard, Courtyard seen from one of the arched galleries, Portico located on the eastern side of the courtyard, Interior view of the eastern portico of the courtyard, Interior view of the western portico of the courtyard. Abstract. Near its centre is an horizontal sundial, bearing an inscription in naskhi engraved on the marble dating from 1258 AH (which corresponds to the year 1843) and which is accessed by a little staircase; it determines the time of prayers. [12] The front façade of the porch has a large horseshoe arch relied on two marble columns and surmounted by a frieze adorned with a blind arcade, all crowned by serrated merlons (in a sawtooth arrangement). Human factors including Hilalian's invasions in 449 AH (1057 AD) led to the decline of the city and halted development. Le long de ce mur, à l’intérieur de la salle de prière, sont indiqués deux éléments architecturaux fondamentaux dans une mosquée :- le mihrab, niche symbolisant la présence de Mahomet ;- le mimbar, endroit où est lu le 69–77. These tiles are mainly decorated with floral and plant motifs (stylised flowers, palm leaves and asymmetrical leaves on bottom hatch and checkered) belong to two series: one polychrome characterised by a greater richness of tones ranging from light gold to light, dark or ocher yellow, and from brick-red to brown lacquer, the other monochrome is a beautiful luster that goes from smoked gold to green gold. Editions Oxford University Press, Malgré le transfert de la capitale politique à Tunis au XII e siècle, Kairouan est restée la première ville sainte du Maghreb. Mohamed Kerrou, « Quartiers et faubourgs de la médina de Kairouan. À travers le monde musulman, les mosquées sont toutes bâties sur ce plan, même si la décoration varie. The rainwater collector or impluvium, probably the work of the Muradid Bey Mohamed Bey al-Mouradi (1686–1696), is an ingenious system that ensures the capture (with the slightly sloping surface of the courtyard) then filtering stormwater at a central basin furnished with horseshoe arches sculpted in white marble. !Contenu très riche. La grande mosquée de Kairouan se trouve à Kairouan, en Tunisie.Elle a été bâtie dans la seconde moitié du VIIe siècle par Obka ibn Nafi, le fondateur de la ville.Elle a été reconstruite au IX e siècle pendant la dynastie aghlabide..